Thursday, February 3, 2011

Privacy Policy

Privacy Policy for

If you require any more information or have any questions about our privacy policy, please feel free to contact us by email at

At, the privacy of our visitors is of extreme importance to us. This privacy policy document outlines the types of personal information is received and collected by and how it is used.

Log Files
Like many other Web sites, makes use of log files. The information inside the log files includes internet protocol ( IP ) addresses, type of browser, Internet Service Provider ( ISP ), date/time stamp, referring/exit pages, and number of clicks to analyze trends, administer the site, track user’s movement around the site, and gather demographic information. IP addresses, and other such information are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable.

Cookies and Web Beacons does use cookies to store information about visitors preferences, record user-specific information on which pages the user access or visit, customize Web page content based on visitors browser type or other information that the visitor sends via their browser.

DoubleClick DART Cookie
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Google Adsense

These third-party ad servers or ad networks use technology to the advertisements and links that appear on send directly to your browsers. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. Other technologies ( such as cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons ) may also be used by the third-party ad networks to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and / or to personalize the advertising content that you see. has no access to or control over these cookies that are used by third-party advertisers.

You should consult the respective privacy policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information on their practices as well as for instructions about how to opt-out of certain practices.'s privacy policy does not apply to, and we cannot control the activities of, such other advertisers or web sites.

If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browsers' respective websites.

Anatomical Directional Terms and Body Planes

Body Planes

Anatomical directional terms are like the directions on a compass rose of a map. Like the directions, North, South, East and West, they can be used to describe the locations of structures in relation to other structures or locations in the body. This is particularly useful when studying anatomy as it provides a common method of communication that helps to avoid confusion when identifying structures.

Also as with a compass rose, each directional term often has a counterpart with converse or opposite meaning. These terms are very useful when describing the locations of structures to be studied in dissections.

Anatomical directional terms can also be applied to the planes of the body. Body planes are used to describe specific sections or regions of the body. Below are examples of some commonly used anatomical directional terms and planes of the body.

Anatomical Directional Terms:

Anterior: In front of, front
Posterior: After, behind, following, toward the rear

Distal: Away from, farther from the origin
Proximal: Near, closer to the origin

Dorsal: Near the upper surface, toward the back
Ventral: Toward the bottom, toward the belly

Superior: Above, over
Inferior: Below, under

Lateral: Toward the side, away from the mid-line
Medial: Toward the mid-line, middle, away from the side

Rostral: Toward the front
Caudal: Toward the back, toward the tail

Anatomical Body Planes:

Imagine a person standing in an upright position. Now imagine dissecting this person with imaginary vertical and horizontal planes. This is the best way to describe anatomical planes. Anatomical planes can be used to describe any body part or an entire body. (View a body plane image.)

Lateral Plane or Sagittal Plane: Imagine a vertical plane that runs through your body from front to back or back to front. This plane divides the body into right and left regions.
  • Median or Midsagittal Plane: Sagittal plane that divides the body into equal right and left regions.

  • Parasagittal Plane: Sagittal plane that divides the body into unequal right and left regions.
Frontal Plane or Coronal Plane: Imagine a vertical plane that runs through the center of your body from side to side. This plane divides the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) regions.

Transverse Plane: Imagine a horizontal plane that runs through the midsection of your body. This plane divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) regions.

Understanding anatomical directional terms and body planes will make it easier to study anatomy. It will help you to be able to visualize positional and spacial locations of structures and navigate directionally from one area to another. Another strategy that can be employed to help you visualize anatomical structures and their positions is to use study aids such as anatomy coloring books and flash cards. It may seem a bit juvenile, but coloring books and review cards actually help you to visually comprehend the information.

Anatomy of the Brain

Human Brain

The anatomy of the brain is complex due its intricate structure and function. This amazing organ acts as a control center by receiving, interpreting, and directing sensory information throughout the body. There are three major divisions of the brain. They are the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

Anatomy of the Brain: Brain Divisions

The forebrain is responsible for a variety of functions including receiving and processing sensory information, thinking, perceiving, producing and understanding language, and controlling motor function. There are two major divisions of forebrain: the diencephalon and the telencephalon. The diencephalon contains structures such as the thalamus and hypothalamus which are responsible for such functions as motor control, relaying sensory information, and controlling autonomic functions. The telencephalon contains the largest part of the brain, the cerebral cortex. Most of the actual information processing in the brain takes place in the cerebral cortex.

The midbrain and the hindbrain together make up the brainstem. The midbrain is the portion of the brainstem that connects the hindbrain and the forebrain. This region of the brain is involved in auditory and visual responses as well as motor function.

The hindbrain extends from the spinal cord and is composed of the metencephalon and myelencephalon. The metencephalon contains structures such as the pons and cerebellum. These regions assists in maintaining balance and equilibrium, movement coordination, and the conduction of sensory information. The myelencephalon is composed of the medulla oblongata which is responsible for controlling such autonomic functions as breathing, heart rate, and digestion.

Anatomy of the Brain: Structures

The brain contains various structures that have a multitude of functions. Below is a list of major structures of the brain and some of their functions.

What is the heart?

Heart Image

The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. It is about the size of a clenched fist, weighs about 10.5 ounces and is shaped like a cone. The heart is located in the chest cavity just posterior to the breastbone, between the lungs and superior to the diaphragm. The heart is surrounded by a fluid filled sac called the pericardium. Blood is pumped away from the heart through arteries and returns to the heart through veins. The major artery of the body is the aorta and the major veins of the body are the vena cavae.

Chambers of the Heart

The heart is divided by a partition or septum into two halves. The halves are in turn divided into chambers. The upper two chambers of the heart are called atria and the lower two chambers are called ventricles. The atria receive blood returning to the heart from the body and the ventricles pump blood from the heart to the body. Valves allow blood to flow in one direction between the chambers of the heart.

The Heart Wall

The heart is composed of cardiac muscle which enable the heart to contract and allow the synchronization of the heart beat. The heart wall is divided into three layers: the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium.
  • Epicardium - outer protective layer of the heart.
  • Myocardium - muscular middle layer wall of the heart.
  • Endocardium - inner layer of the heart that is continuous with the inner lining of blood vessels.

Cardiac Conduction

Cardiac conduction is the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses. Cardiac muscle cells contract spontaneously and are coordinated by nodal tissue, specifically the sinoatrial node. There are other factors that influence heart rate as well. These include endocrine hormones, body temperature and exercise.

Cardiac Cycle

The cardiac cycle is the sequence of events that occur when the heart beats. There are two phases of this cycle which are the diastole and systole phases. During the diastole phase, the atria and ventricles are relaxed and blood flows into the atria and ventricles. In the systole phase, the ventricles contract sending blood to the rest of the body.

Heart Anatomy

Heart Anatomy

Heart Anatomy

Image Courtesy of MedValet
The heart is the organ that helps supply blood and oxygen to all parts of the body. It is divided by a partition or septum into two halves, and the halves are in turn divided into four chambers. The heart is situated within the chest cavity and surrounded by a fluid filled sac called the pericardium. This amazing muscle produces electrical impulses that cause the heart to contract, pumping blood throughout the body. The heart and the circulatory system together form the cardiovascular system.

Heart Anatomy: Chambers

  • Atria - upper two chambers of the heart.
  • Ventricles - lower two chambers of the heart.

Heart Anatomy: Heart Wall

  • Epicardium - the outer layer of the wall of the heart.
  • Myocardium - the muscular middle layer of the wall of the heart.
  • Endocardium - the inner layer of the heart.

Heart Anatomy: Cardiac Conduction

Cardiac Conduction is the rate at which the heart conducts electrical impulses. The following structures play an important role in causing the heart to contract:

Heart Anatomy: Cardiac Cycle

The Cardiac Cycle is the sequence of events that occurs when the heart beats. Below are the two phases of the cardiac cycle:
  • Diastole Phase - the heart ventricles are relaxed and the heart fills with blood.
  • Systole Phase - the ventricles contract and pump blood to the arteries.

Heart Anatomy: Valves

Heart valves are flap-like structures that allow blood to flow in one direction. Below are the four valves of the heart:
  • Aortic Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left ventricle to the aorta.
  • Mitral Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the left atrium to the left ventricle.
  • Pulmonary Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery.
  • Tricuspid Valve - prevents the back flow of blood as it is pumped from the right atrium to the right ventricle.